Release 0.30.0 is out!

rust-bitcoin version 0.30.0 is out now.

This is a rather large release so we decided to write an update guide for you guys. If this guide is not useful or lacking in some way please do let us know so we can do better.

First a little excuse for why this is going to be so painful. We try to deprecate things when we make API breaking changes, using

 #[deprecated(since = "x.y.z", note = "use foobar instead")]

This allows us to give you a hint on how to upgrade by way of the compiler. The problem we hit was that its not always possible to deprecate things (e.g. changing arguments to a function) so under the cover of “this is a pre-1.0 release” and with the aim of pushing kind of fast so we can get to the 1.0 release, we got a bit sloppy with deprecation this release - sorry about that. We are very much trying to get to a place where we can commit to our APIs and stabilize the codebase, that is the primary goal of development at the moment. If you have API changing suggestions or requests please get them into us now so your needs can be met.

Without further ado, here is the upgrade guide. Enjoy!

Suggested steps

We suggest that you take these steps when upgrading:

  1. Make sure to update other dependency versions in Cargo.toml if you use them explicitly: bitcoin_hashes to 0.12.0, secp256k1 to 0.27.0
  2. Remove all occurrences of util:: referring to our crate
  3. Replace Script with ScriptBuf (s/\([^A-Za-z0-9]\)Script\([^A-Za-z0-9]\)/\1ScriptBuf\2/g should work in most cases)
  4. Replace instances of .parse::<Address>() with .parse::<Address<_>>()
  5. Call require_network(network) on parsed addresses (you’ll get no method found for Address<NetworkUnchecked> errors)
  6. Replace locktime with locktime::absolute
  7. Replace PackedLockTime with just LockTime
  8. Import key types from the key submodule rather than schnorr or ecdsa
  9. Replace SchnorrSighashType with TapSighashType
  10. Replace TapBranchHash with TapNodeHash
  11. Change hash_newtype!(FooHash, sha256::Hash, 32, doc="A hash of foo."); to:
hash_newtype! {
    /// A hash of foo.
    pub struct FooHash(sha256::Hash);
  1. Fix outstanding compiler errors, if any
  2. Optimize the code: replace occurrences of &ScriptBuf with Script, remove allocations…
  3. Remove useless conversions LockTime -> LockTime (clippy has a lint for it)

These steps should get you most of the way - see “Renames” section below also.


We are trying to separate the API from the directory structure, as part of this we are attempting to only re-export from the crate root types that exist in the standard Bitcoin vernacular i.e., for pubkey you can use bitcoin::PublicKey but to get an x-only pubkey you need to go to the key module use bitcoin::key::XOnlyPublicKey.

Please note this is still work-in-progress, suggestions welcome.

Code moves

We moved a lot of stuff around. This was a precursor to crate smashing which we have now started. Hopefully things are in intuitive places, it might be useful to take a quick look at the new module structure to get a feel for things, specifically:

  • We have a workspace now! The main crate now lives in bitcoin/. The bitcoin_hashes repository has been merged into the rust-bitcoin repository and now lives under hashes/.

  • The util module is all but gone, try just removing util:: at first, most modules are re-exported at the crate root.

  • Cryptography related stuff can now primarily be found in 4 modules (ecdsa, taproot, sighash, key). We have started to break ECDSA stuff up into legacy and segwit v0 where it is cleaner but this is still work-in-progress.

  • Some hash wrapper types are now to be found in the module that they are used in e.g., TapLeafHash is in the taproot module. Others are still in hash_types but the re-exports now conform to the aim stated above so you might need to add hash_types:: to your paths for the more esoteric hash types.

Script changes

To optimize efficiency of working with borrowed scripts we renamed Script to ScriptBuf and added an unsized Script. It works just like PathBuf and Path (and other such types) from std. The API tries to resemble those types as much as reasonable (deref coercions etc.), so it should be intuitive. Methods in the library that previously took &Script (which is now ScriptBuf) take the unsized &Script now.

Additionally, we changed the type accepted by the push_slice method to be another unsized newtype: PushBytes and it’s owned counterpart PushBytesBuf. These types maintain the invariant of storing at most 2^32-1 bytes - the maximum one can push into script. Previously the method would panic if you attempted to do it (and it wasn’t documented, sorry about that). Now you can either handle it explicitly using TryFrom or just pass a known-length array (implemented for arrays up to 73 bytes).

Types that are commonly pushed into script (serialized signatures, public keys…) implement AsRef<PushBytes> so you can pass those directly as well. You can also implement AsRef for your types so they can be pushed directly.

Taproot changes

Since the introduction of Taproot support the API got “stress tested” and various issues were uncovered and fixed. One of them is that the name “Branch Hash” refers to the algorithm being used to compute the value but the resulting value is actually a node in the tree. Thus we renamed TapBranchHash to TapNodeHash to reflect this. Additionally we originally used raw sha256::Hashes for node hashes which was error-prone and annoying because of manual conversions. We changed them to use TapNodeHash instead.

When writing smart contracts that have their taproot trees statically known it was annoying to use TaprootMerkleBranch::try_from for arrays that are statically known to be shorter than 128. We’ve added From conversion for these.

NodeInfo got some improvements too. For trees that are statically guaranteed to not have hidden nodes we have TapTree type and both got methods for getting an iterator over their respective items. This also improved our code internally, fixing some bugs and decreasing the risk of other bugs. We have some additional ideas to improve it further.

Some types that do not have a well-defined serialization in the Bitcoin ecosystem or are purely Rust constructs (e.g. builders) got serde support removed. Serializing these would be error-prone and difficult to support stably. You can instead (de)serialize other types and convert them.

Overall, these changes should make working with Taproot less error-prone and more ergonomic. Taproot is still young technology so it’s possible there will be more changes in the future as new users try out the API. Please let us know if you have questions or suggestions.


We moved around and renamed a bunch of types to do with sighashes. In the sighash module, along with the SighashCache we now have the hopefully clearly named:

  • LegacySighash
  • SegwitV0Sighash
  • TapSighash
  • EcdsaSighashType
  • TapSighashType

Signatures are now in their respective modules (ecdsa for legacy and segwit v0):

  • taproot::Signature
  • ecdsa::Signature

Lock types

There are now two lock times, one for absolute locks (CLTV) and one for relative locks (CSV). We export the absolute and relative modules at the crate root so you can either import them from there or use bitcoin::locktime::{absolute, relative}; if that’s clearer. We expect locks to be used as absolute::LockTime.

Address changes

Bitcoin addresses for different networks are different, up until this release, when parsing an address from a string, a check that the address format matched up to the expected network (e.g. “bc1” prefix for Bitcoin mainnet segwit addresses) was available but easy to forget. We’ve attempted to improve the API to make such omissions harder.

Now Address<V> includes a generic that is used as a marker for whether the address has been checked as valid for a particular network, we have Address<NetworkChecked> and Address<NetworkUnchecked>, defaulting to NetworkChecked. Because of the default some uses will just keep working but you should be aware that Address now means Address<NetworkChecked>. The string parsing functions return types as expected. See the docs on Address for more information.


This is a non-exhaustive list of newtypes added this release:

  • relative::LockTime
  • relative::Height
  • relative::Time
  • ecdsa::SerializedSignature
  • ScriptBuf
  • PushBytes / PushBytesBuf
  • Target
  • CompactTarget
  • Work


This is a non-exhaustive list of types renamed in this release:

  • Script -> ScriptBuf
  • locktime::LockTime -> locktime::absolute::LockTime
  • locktime::Time -> locktime::absolute::Time
  • locktime::Height -> locktime::absolute::Height
  • TapBranchHash / TapLeafHash -> TapNodeHash
  • TapSighashHash -> TapSighash
  • SchnorrSighashtype -> TapSighashType
  • schnorr -> taproot (module rename)
  • Various error types were renamed, we try to use foo::Error if there is a single error type in the foo module.

Removed types

  • PackedLockTime

This type was intended as an optimization of the absolute locktime using a u32, this turned out to be not such a great idea. Please note absolute::LockTime does not implement Ord.

  • Uint256

We changed the Uint256 type to U256 and made it private since it is not a general purpose integer type. Rather we wrapped it to create the Work and Target types.

Final thoughts

I’ve tried to give you some context on why so many changes. Hopefully the context makes the upgrade path easier and helps to clarify the direction we are pushing in at the moment. As always, contributions are most welcome, issues, PRs, and even just ideas. We are here to provide the best crate we can for devs wishing to interact with the Bitcoin network in Rust, feedback from your usecase helps us a lot, help us out so we can help you.

Tobin (and the rust-bitcoin devs).